Course 4 – System Administration and IT Infrastructure Services

Week 2: Network and Infrastructure Services

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In the second week of this course, we’ll learn about network and infrastructure services. We will cover what IT infrastructure services are and what their role is in system administration. We’ll also learn about server operating systems, virtualization, network services, DNS for web services, and how to troubleshoot network services. By the end of this module, you will know the most common IT infrastructure services you’ll encounter when handling system administration tasks.

Learning Objectives

  • Understand why DNS and DHCP servers are used and what is needed to set it up.
  • Learn about the physical infrastructure services in an organization that make server management easier.


1. Which of the following is considered a physical infrastructure service? Check all that apply.

  • Laptop (CORRECT)
  • Desktop (CORRECT)
  • Rack server (CORRECT)
  • Operating systems

You got it! Physical infrastructure services are comprised of the physical hardware that an organization uses in their IT environment.

2. Which of these is considered a network service? Check all that apply.

  • Wireless Internet (CORRECT)
  • Blade server
  • Ethernet cables (CORRECT)

Excellent! Network services are comprised of networking components that an organization uses in their IT environment, like network protocols, network hardware, etc.

3. Which of these is considered a software service? Check all that apply.

  • Chat applications (CORRECT)
  • Word processors (CORRECT)
  • Email applications (CORRECT)
  • Wireless Internet

Great job! Software services are comprised of the software that an organization uses in its IT environment.


1. If you’re running a server, which one of the follow operating systems would be best suited for your server?

  • Windows 10
  • Ubuntu Server (CORRECT)
  • MacOS
  • Ubuntu

That’s exactly right! When running a server, it’s best to use a server operating system that’s been specifically optimized for server performance.

2. What are the benefits of virtualizing servers? Check all that apply.

  • Better hardware resource utilization (CORRECT)
  • Easier maintenance  (CORRECT)
  • Lower costs (CORRECT)
  • Better performance than a dedicated server

Awesome! Virtualizing servers offer lots of benefits, like enabling hardware to be better utilized, easier to maintain, and generally lower in cost.

3. Which of the following do you need in order to SSH to a machine? Check all that apply.

  • An SSH client on the machine you want to connect from (CORRECT)
  • A VPN connection
  • An SSH server on the machine you want to connect to (CORRECT)
  • A virtual server to connect to

Wohoo! To make an SSH connection from one machine to another, you need to have an SSH client on the machine you want to connect from, along with an SSH server on the machine you want to connect to.


1. What is one benefit of using TFTP over SFTP?

  • Added security
  • Simpler transfer without authentication (CORRECT)
  • The encrypted transfer of data
  • The user authentication requirement

Yep! TFTP allows for a simpler transfer of files without having to authenticate. If you wanted to host something that anyone could access, you could use TFTP over SFTP.

2. What service can you use to keep time synchronized across the machines on your fleet?

  • FTP
  • Kerberos
  • SFTP

Excellent! NTP, or network time protocol, is used to keep time synchronized across machines.

3. What features does a proxy offer? Check all that apply.

  • Network privacy (CORRECT)
  • Network traffic monitoring (CORRECT)
  • Internet traffic filtering (CORRECT)
  • The ability for employees to share information more easily

Wohoo! A proxy acts as an intermediary between your company and the Internet. Because of that, you have network privacy and can monitor and filter network traffic.

4. If you want to point a domain name to a web server or use hostnames within your company, what network protocol can you use?

  • DHCP
  • NTP
  • SFTP

Great job! You can use DNS to point a domain name to a web server or use hostnames within your company.

5. If you don’t want to use static IP addresses, but want to dynamically assign IP addresses to computers instead, what network protocol can you use?

  • TFTP
  • Kerberos
  • NTP

Nice work! You can use DHCP to dynamically assign IP addresses to computers.


1. Let’s say that you handle the IT systems administration for your company. There’s a server inside of your organization that checks how often client machines access it. If a client machine hasn’t accessed the server in three months, the server won’t allow the client machine to access its resources anymore. What can you set to make sure that your client machines and the server times are in sync?

  • FTP
  • Proxy
  • Intranet

You nailed it! NTP is commonly used in organizations to keep time synchronized across machines in a fleet.

2. If you wanted to securely transfer files from your local machine to a web server, what file transfer protocol could you use?

  • FTP
  • TFTP
  • NTP

Yep! SFTP is the file transfer protocol that encrypts data.

3. Google’s GSuite is an example of which Cloud service?

  • Directory as a Service
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) (CORRECT)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)

You got it! Software as a Service (SaaS) is a neat Cloud product that gives users the ability to edit word documents, process spreadsheets, make presentations, and more, all from a web browser. This simplifies things for you, with less to install and manage.

4. What are the advantages of using Infrastructure as a Service (or IaaS) solutions? Check all that apply.

  • You can keep all your files on local machines.
  • Operating system updates are taken care of for you. (CORRECT)
  • You’re not responsible for managing hardware tasks. (CORRECT)
  • You can have the hardware you need without upgrading any actual hardware. (CORRECT)

You nailed it! When using Infrastructure as a Service, system software updates are taken care of for you!

You nailed it! Simply upgrade your plan by utilizing more computing resources, and you can have all the resources your business needs.

You nailed it! Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) solutions, such as Microsoft’s Azure or our very own Google Compute Engine, give us the ability to run Virtual Machines (VMs) on remote hardware. This means less fiddling with hardware and more productivity!

5. A network technician sets up an internal DNS server for his local network. When he types in a URL, which is checked first?

  • External ISP DNS servers
  • External public DNS servers
  • Local DNS servers
  • Local hosts file (CORRECT)

Woohoo! The local hosts files are always checked first.

6. A website is inaccesible via its URL. You’ve pinged the site and see no problem there. What is the next troubleshooting step?

  • Access host file and check for inconsistencies
  • Turn the device off and on again
  • Use nslookup in the terminal to rule out DNS issues (CORRECT)
  • Ping localhost

Right on! We can rule out if DNS is an issue by verifying that the hostname points to a nameserver. If we copy the IP address of the results and paste it into the web browser, it should resolve the website name if the DNS is working.

7. What does PXE Boot stand for?

  • Pay-to-Boot Extortion
  • Pre Boot Execution (CORRECT)
  • Past Boot Examination
  • Post Boot Extraction

Right on! PXE Boot stands for Pre Boot Execution. This allows you to boot into software that’s available over the network.

8. A sysadmin is looking to use Pre Boot Execution over a network by keeping operating system installation files on a server. Which type of server is this most likely to be?

  • TFTP server (CORRECT)
  • DNS server
  • SFTP server
  • FTP server

Well done! TFTP stands for trivial FTP. It’s a simpler way to transfer files than using FTP and is often used to host installation files.

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